Avant une belle tempête, on contrôle son toit…

DANGER DE TEMPETE…ON FAIT CONTRÔLER SON TOIT

 

Les tempêtes – les fortes pluies -la neige (un peu en Bretagne…) les orages chacun de ses éléments font chaque année d’énormes dégâts sur les toitures des maisons.

Pour les anticiper et bien protéger sa toiture couverture :

Les tempêtes sont après les inondations le deuxième phénomène climatique causant le plus de dégâts en France.

Elles se caractérisent par des vents très puissants sur une vaste zone (de 90 à 130 km/h, parfois plus), souvent accompagnés de précipitations abondantes et d’orages.

Lorsque la toiture de votre maison est très exposée au vent elle présente déjà quelques faiblesses, les conséquences suite à une tempête se révèlent souvent catastrophiques et très onéreuses .

Le principal danger du aux changements climatiques ( suite aux diverses pollutions nouvelles ) que nous vivons imposent d’avantage de vigilance.

Les risques occasionnés sont l’envol des matériaux de la couverture .

La toiture de votre habitation perd alors son étanchéité à l’eau et à l’air (sans oublier que les risques de chutes de tuiles ou d’ardoises peuvent blesser gravement des personnes ).

La casse des matériaux de la toiture : la chute d’une cheminée, d’une branche, d’un arbre ou même de tuiles ou de gouttières peut occasionner d’énormes dégâts.

 

Les infiltrations d’eau :

même si la toiture résiste aux forces du vent, la pluie entre la ou ont l’attend la moins ( donc méfiance ).

La force d’impact des gouttes associée à la poussée du vent peut entraîner des infiltrations sous la couverture, capables de dégrader l’isolation et l’intérieur de l’habitation.

Prévenir de ses dangers :

Prenez le temps de faire régulièrement le tour de votre maison, surtout après de fortes bourrasques, pour identifier d’éventuels dommages.

Une couverture bien posée résiste au vent.

Surveillez en priorité les fixations et scellements des bords et arêtes de la toiture (arêtiers, saillies, tuiles de rive).

Toute tuile ou élément de la couverture de toit cassée doit être remplacée au plus vite.

Pour les plaques de zinc ou de fibrociment, vérifiez la fixation au niveau du bord d’attaque. Si ce bord est bien protégé, il n’y a pas de risque de soulèvement.

Gouttières, antennes, paraboles

Visite des combles ( perdus ou aménageables ): montez au moins une fois par an dans les combles

et surtout après une tempête pour repérer d’éventuelles traces d’infiltration d’eau, les poussières de bois (signe de présence d’insectes xylophages), une déformation de la charpente, voire, dans certains cas, le déplacement d’isolants .

Contrôlez également l’écran de sous-toiture ou prévoir la pose futur d’un écran de sous toiture. ( Lors d’une rénovation de la couverture, pensez à faire installer un écran de sous-toiture, ce qui améliore de près de 20 % la résistance au vent ).

Il protège aussi temporairement les combles de l’humidité, si la couverture est abîmée.

Ne montez jamais seul sur votre toiture cela peut être dangereux

Si vous avez des travaux à réaliser, contactez un professionnel artisan couvreur correctement assuré et initié au fait des dernières réglementations en vigueur.

Les règles professionnelles qui régissent les techniques de pose des matériaux de couverture (nommées DTU) dépendent de zones géographiques établies à partir des expériences du passé.( chaque année de nouvelles normes sont imposées aux vues des divers changement climatique )

Elles imposent, en fonction de l’exposition au phénomène du vent / de la pluie, une pente minimale des toitures et une méthode de fixation des tuiles ou ardoises, selon la présence ou pas d’écran de sous-toiture.

En zone sensible n’hésitez pas à faire renforcer la fixation des tuiles ou tous autres matériaux de couverture au-delà des normes.

Les frais de tous travaux exécutés rapidement seront moins onéreux que si vous attendez la prochaine tempête ou forte pluie pour remettre votre toiture en mode sécurité.

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